R

This Glossary provides a central place to find the meaning of key terms in Gender-Based Violence (GBV) work and to access resources for further learning. It will grow and change as the GBV field does. If you find a term should be added or revised, please contact us at vawln@uwo.ca

You can view the terms associated with a letter by selecting the letter below. Crossed out letters do not have any terms. You can also click here for a PDF of all the included terms.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

Racial Profiling

“Any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security or public protection that relies on stereotypes about race, colour, ethnicity, ancestry, religion, or place of origin rather than on reasonable suspicion, to single out an individual for greater scrutiny or differential treatment. Profiling can occur because of a combination of the above factors, and age and/or gender can influence the experience of profiling.” [1] 

Footnotes:

[1] Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (n.d.). CRRF Glossary of Terms. Retrieved from https://www.crrf-fcrr.ca/en/resources/glossary-a-terms-en-gb-1

Racism

“Racism occurs when an expression of racial prejudice emerges from a more powerful/privileged location in the hierarchy, and is directed at an individual/group in a less powerful/privileged location. Racism is an exercise of power and refers not only to social attitudes towards non-dominant ethnic and racial groups but also to social structures and actions which oppress, exclude, limit and discriminate against such individuals and groups. Such social attitudes originate in and rationalize discriminatory treatment. Racism can be seen in discriminatory laws, residential segregation, poor health care, inferior education, unequal economic opportunity and the exclusion and distortion of the perspectives of non-dominant Canadians in cultural institutions.” [1]

“Racism is a common form of violence that is experienced by women from immigrant communities in Canada who are racialized.” [2]

“When looking at gender-based violence against immigrant and refugee women, it is critical to see the different ways in which racism and sexism intersect and influence their lives. For instance, dominant discourses of immigrant and refugee women and domestic violence tend to culturalize violence, seeing it as a product of cultural conflict rather than structural inequality.” [3]

See also: Anti-Black Racism, Anti-Indigenous Racism, Anti-Semitism

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] Alberta Civil Liberties Research Centre. (n.d.). Racism and Power. Retrieved from http://www.aclrc.com/racism-and-power

[2] Tabibi, J., Ahmad, S., Baker, L., & Lalonde, D. (2018). Intimate Partner Violence Against Immigrant and Refugee Women. Learning Network Issue 26. London, Ontario: Centre for Research & Education on Violence Against Women & Children. P. 2. ISBN # 978-1-988412-24-5 Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/issuebased_newsletters/issue-26/index.html

[3] Razack, S. (2000). Looking white people in the eye: Gender, race, and culture in courtrooms and classrooms. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. doi:10.3138/9781442670204

Racist

“Refers to an individual, institution, or organization whose beliefs and/or actions imply (intentionally or unintentionally) that certain races have distinctive negative or inferior characteristics. As an adjective, also refers to racial discrimination inherent in the policies, practices and procedures of institutions, corporations, and organizations which, though applied to everyone equally and may seem fair, result in exclusion or act as barriers to the advancement of marginalized groups, thereby perpetuating racism.” [1]

Footnotes:

[1] Canadian Race Relations Foundation. (n.d.). CRRF Glossary of Terms. Retrieved from https://www.crrf-fcrr.ca/en/resources/glossary-a-terms-en-gb-1

Rape

“Rape is an act of power and control, in which the victim is humiliated, degraded, and left with feelings of shame, guilt, and anger. The Criminal Code of Canada does not specifically define ‘rape’ in terms of specific acts. The crime of sexual assault is codified within the general assault provision (s. 265(2)), which makes it a crime to intentionally apply force to another person without their consent.” [1]

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] Canadian Federation of Students-Ontario. (2017). Campus toolkit for building consent culture. Retrieved from https://cfsontario.ca/campaigns/gender-based-violence

Rape Culture

“Many prevailing societal attitudes justify, tolerate, normalize and minimize sexual violence against women and girls. While often subtle, these persistent attitudes are integrated with and rooted in rape myths, stereotypes, and oppressive beliefs. This phenomenon is popularly referred to as ‘rape culture’.

Rape culture impacts various groups of women differently. For instance, while influencing all of us, rape culture sets up some groups as more likely to be targeted for sexual violence and to be disbelieved or blamed for the violation they experience (e.g., women of colour, impoverished women, women living with disabilities, trans-identified women and other women).” [1]

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] Learning Network. (2014). Sexual violence awareness. Learning Network Issue 9. London, Ontario: Centre for Research & Education on Violence Against Women & Children. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/issuebased_newsletters/issue-9/index.html

Refugee

“[A] person who is forced to flee from persecution and who is located outside of their home country. We may also call this person a Convention refugee – a person who meets the refugee definition in the 1951 Geneva Convention relating to the Status of Refugees. This definition is used in Canadian law and is widely accepted internationally. To meet the definition, a person must be outside their country of origin and have a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion.” [1]

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] Canadian Council for Refugees. (n.d.).
Background information about refugees. Retrieved from https://ccrweb.ca/en/information-refugees

Relational Aggression

“Relational or social aggression is defined as intentionally harming another person’s social relationships.” [1] “Relational aggression is typically covert and indirect. Examples can include shunning, excluding, ignoring, gossiping, rumour spreading, or disclosing another person’s secret. Relational aggression is different from other forms of bullying in that most bullying occurs outside the peer group while relational aggression occurs within the peer group. However, it is similar because it can be repeated, aggressive, harassing, and severe.” [2]

Footnotes:

[1] Stangor, C. (2014, September 26). Principles of Social Psychology – 1st International Edition. Retrieved from https://opentextbc.ca/socialpsychology/chapter/defining-aggression/

[2] Alberta Child and Youth Services. (2017, February 23). Relational Aggression. Retrieved from https://www.hinton.ca/DocumentCenter/View/5279/Relational-Aggression

Reprisal

“A person who has authority or power denies you something important, punishes or threatens you for refusing a sexual request, or for [disclosing] inappropriate sexual behaviour or comments.” [1]

Learn More:

Footnotes:

[1] Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children (CREVAWC) (2008).  Surviving the System Handbook:  Advice on Using the Legal System if you are a Survivor of Sexual Violence. Retrieved from http://kfacc.org/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/surviving-the-system-handbook.pdf

Reproductive Violence/Coercion

“Restricting or denying a woman’s ability to make her own decisions about her body is an attempt to maintain power and control over a woman. Behaviour that has the intention of controlling a woman’s reproductive health decision-making is known as reproductive coercion.” [1] “Reproductive coercion includes pregnancy coercion, birth control/contraception sabotage, forced sterilization and control of pregnancy options.” [2]

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] White Ribbon. (n.d.). What is reproductive coercion? Retrieved from https://www.whiteribbon.ca/understand-domestic-violence/types-of-abuse/reproductive-coercion/

[2] Norman, W. (2016, February). Exploring the intersections of domestic violence and sexual violence: A discussion paper informed by the February 2016 Knowledge Exchange. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/reports/report_2016_1.html

Resilience

“The process of adapting well in the face of adversity, trauma, tragedy, threats or significant sources of stress — such as family and relationship problems, serious health problems or workplace and financial stressors. Resilience is multidimensional and is associated with individual, relationship, community, cultural and environmental factors.” [1]

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] Canadian Mental Health Association. (2018, March 09). Building Resilience. Retrieved from https://cmhahkpr.ca/building-resilience

Revenge Porn

The term “revenge porn” has been argued to be problematic so the term “non-consensual sexual videos” is preferred. [1]

Non-consensual sexual videos involve pornographic materials produced and/or distributed in order to humiliate an individual.  It constitutes a form of sexual violence, and is most frequently perpetrated as a form of violence against women:

“Because young women’s social status has historically been closely tied to chastity and modesty, women are particularly vulnerable to humiliation when their private sexual life is made public.” [2]

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] Learning Network. (2019). What you need to know about nonconsensual sexual deepfakes. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/infographics/index.html

[2] Fairbairn, J. (2015). Cyberviolence Against Women & Girls. Ottawa Coalition to End Violence Against Women. P. 16. Retrieved from: https://www.octevaw-cocvff.ca/sites/default/files/CyberViolenceReport_OCTEVAW.pdf

Re-Victimization

Re-victimization refers to “the experience of victimization at two different life stages or during the same life stage, by more than one perpetrator.” [1] “People who have experienced trauma are at an increased risk for being revictimized in the future. In fact, it is reported that approximately two out of every three people who are sexually victimized are revictimized later in life. Also, when someone who experienced childhood trauma is victimized again later in life, they may have more severe and complicated responses to the new trauma.” [2]

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] Baker, L., & Etherington, N. (2017). Links Between the maltreatment of girls and later victimization or use of violence. Learning Network Issue 20. London, Ontario: Centre for Research & Education on Violence Against Women & Children. Retrieved from http://www.vawlearningnetwork.ca/our-work/issuebased_newsletters/issue-20/Newsletter_Issue_20_11.pdf

[2] Women's College Hospital. (n.d.). Mental health signs and symptoms. Retrieved from https://www.womenshealthmatters.ca/health-centres/mental-health/trauma/signs-and-symptoms

Risk

“A risk is a danger that is incompletely understood and can be forecasted only with uncertainty. The danger we are concerned with is domestic violence, which is a complex event. Violent acts can vary greatly with respect to such things as motivations of the perpetrator, nature of the relationship with the victim/survivor, or nature of physical harm. Risk is multi-faceted and cannot be conceptualized simply by trying to quantify the probability that someone will engage in domestic violence. Instead, you must also consider the nature, seriousness, frequency or duration, and imminence of any future violence. Risk is inherently dynamic and contextual. The risk posed by perpetrators depends on such things as where they will reside, what kinds of services they will receive, whether they will experience adverse life events. For example, a perpetrator’s risk for domestic violence may decrease if he no longer resides with the victim/survivor, if he receives appropriate substance use treatment, if he establishes or maintains stable employment or if he has a good support personal system of family and friends.” [1]

Learn More:


Footnotes:

[1] Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (2012). Domestic violence risk assessment and management online training course. Retrieved from http://onlinetraining.learningtoendabuse.ca/sites/default/files/lessons/DVRAM%20full-text%20December%202012_1.pdf 

Risk Assessment

Assessment is the process of gathering information for use in making decisions. The specific assessment procedures used are determined by what is being assessed and the nature of the decisions to be made.

“Domestic violence risk assessment involves the process of gathering information about perpetrators of domestic violence to make decisions regarding their risk of perpetrating domestic violence. While the focus of domestic violence risk assessment is on the perpetrator, victim safety planning is a very important part of this process. The primary goal of domestic violence risk assessment is prevention of future domestic violence. To prevent future domestic violence it is critical for service providers to determine what domestic violence risks are posed by a perpetrator and what steps can be taken to mitigate domestic violence risk...  Overall, domestic violence risk assessment can be defined as the process of evaluating individuals to: (1) speculate about the risks for domestic violence posed by the perpetrator; and, (2) mitigate the risks posed by the perpetrator.” [1]

Learn More:

Footnotes:

[1] Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (2012). Domestic violence risk assessment and management online training course. Retrieved from http://onlinetraining.learningtoendabuse.ca/sites/default/files/lessons/DVRAM%20full-text%20December%202012_1.pdf

Risk Factor

“A risk factor is a condition or circumstance that that has been found to be positively associated with domestic violence/homicides in previous research. This condition or circumstance precedes the occurrence of the danger and may influence a perpetrator’s decision making. In other words, a risk factor increases the likelihood of danger to domestic violence. While it is critically important to pay attention to and manage risk factors, we should not confuse risk factors with the underlying causes of violence. A risk factor may prompt a perpetrator to act on a violent urge, but it is not the reason for embracing violence as a way to get what he wants.” [1]

“In the case of domestic violence risk assessment, risk factors should be supported by science (e.g., have statistical and empirical support and have demonstrated predictive validity), by practice (e.g., are practical and useful and have strong theoretical foundations), and by law (e.g., are reasonable, logical, and fair). Some examples of important risk factors for domestic violence are employment problems, substance use, mental health problems, relationship problems and periods of heightened tension, such as significant anniversaries. Information about risk factors is critical for violence risk assessment and management because it helps you understand what risks may be posed by the perpetrator and how to manage those risks. For instance, if substance use problems are identified as an important risk factor for violence in a particular case, efforts can be taken to monitor, treat, or supervise the perpetrator’s use of substances.” [1]

Learn More:

Footnotes:

[1] Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (2012). Domestic violence risk assessment and management online training course. Retrieved from http://onlinetraining.learningtoendabuse.ca/sites/default/files/lessons/DVRAM%20full-text%20December%202012_1.pdf

Risk Management

“Risk Management is taking action to prevent violence from happening, often in collaboration with other service providers and the potential victim/survivor. The victim/survivor’s children may also be at risk and should be included in the assessment and management strategies. Management strategies should focus on what should be done in health care, social service, education, victim/survivor services, workplace and legal settings to manage the potential violence risks posed by a person. Specifically, decisions should be made about general strategies that can be used to manage violence risk, such as Partner Assault Response Programs, substance use and mental health intervention, as well as specific tactics that can be taken to manage violence risk, such as referral to Partner Assault Response Programs, detox, inpatient substance use intervention, outpatient substance use intervention, employee assistance programs, or alcoholics anonymous, taking into account practical issues that can affect availability, accessibility, acceptability, affordability, and appropriateness access of services (e.g., cost, location, transportation, waiting times). Once a referral has been made, it is important to follow-up to ensure that the person was able to access that service, or that appropriate alternative action was taken.” [1]

Learn More:

Footnotes:

[1] Centre for Research and Education on Violence Against Women and Children. (2012). Domestic violence risk assessment and management online training course. Retrieved from http://onlinetraining.learningtoendabuse.ca/sites/default/files/lessons/DVRAM%20full-text%20December%202012_1.pdf